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Full text of "Descriptive illustrated catalogue of the sixty-eight competitive designs for the great tower for London"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Research Library, The Getty Research Institute 



http://www.archive.org/details/descriptiveillusOOIynd 



DESCRIPTIVE 



Illustrated Catalogue 

OF THE 
SIXTY-EIGHT COMPETITIVE DESIGNS 



FOR THE 



GREAT TOWER 

FOR LONDON, 



COMPILED AND EDITED BY 



Fred. C. Lynde, a.m.Inst.c.e., 

25, Cross Street, Manchester, and 9, Victoria Street, 
Westminster, London, 

FOR 

THE TOWER COMPANY, LIMITED, 

St. Stephen's Chambers, Westminster, 
LONDON, S.W. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY "INDUSTRIES, 

358, Strand, London, W.C. 

1890. 



The Illustrations are all engraved to the uniform scale 
of 300 Feet to an Inch. 



NOTE. — The Design which obtained the First Premium 
value 500 Guineas, Avill be found on page 82 ; and 
on page no will be found the Design which 
obtained the Second Premium, value 250 Guineas. 



The Numbers attached to the Designs are consecutive, 
and simply indicate the order in which they were examined 
by the Judges, without any reference to their respective merits. 



PREFACE. 



One of the objects of greatest interest at Paris is The 
Eiffel Tower, which is situated in the Champ de Mars. It 
was designed by the eminent French Engineer, M. Gustave 
Eiffel, and formed the most remarkable feature of the French 
Exhibition of 1889. 

In the construction of this Tower, 7,500 tons of Steel and 
Iron were used, consisting of 12,000 specially designed pieces, 
fastened together with 2,500,000 rivets, the number of drilled 
holes being 7,000,000. 

The height of the Eiffel Tower is 300 metres, or 984*26 
feet above the ground. The cost was ^"280,000. 

The graceful form of the Eiffel Tower was not determined 
by considerations of its appearance, but by mathematical 
considerations dependent upon the conditions of the wind's 
intensity. It rests upon its foundations on four feet, each 
of which consists of four main girders, braced together 
by lattice girders and crossbeams. The structure therefore 
rests upon sixteen main frames, four rising out of each foot. 
By this means, the total weight of the Tower is dis- 
tributed over a large area, which reduces the pressure 
per square foot upon the foundations. In facT, the 
foundations are loaded with no greater weight than 
those of an ordinary five-storied building. 

The project of building the Eiffel Tower was attacked 
with much animosity, as is usually the case with new under- 
takings, but the large amount of public patronage which it 
continues to receive proves that such opposition was un- 
founded. 



The popularity of the Eiffel Tower may be fairly guaged 
by the receipts in connection with it. During the Exhibition 
the net takings on the Tower amounted to ^"260,000, a sum 
almost equal to its cost. 




THE EIFFEL TOWER. 



Height in feet, 
i. The Vendome Column, 
Paris ... 147 

2. Notre Dame, Paris ... 217 

3. Column of July, Paris 154 

4. Saint Peter's, Rome ... 433 

5. Washington Obelisk ... 554 



6. Great Pyramid of Egypt 479 

7. Rouen Cathedral ... 492 

8. Strasburg Cathedral 467 

9. Invalides at Paris ... 343 

10. Arc de Triomphe, Paris 160 

11. Cologne Cathedral ... 521 

12. Pantheon at Paris ... 279 



During the period the Tower has been open, since the 
closing of the Exhibition, the average weekly receipts from 
entrance charges alone (excluding rents of shops and profits 



from the restaurants and other sources) amounted to ^1,148, 
and this during very unfavourable weather. The receipts 
from the shops, restaurants, concerts, &c, would very 
materially raise the above-named weekly average, leaving a 
very large profit over expenses. The Eiffel Tower has 
already rendered valuable service to science, besides affording 
special opportunities for observation and research, which, 
owing to its altitude, are not otherwise attainable. Taking 
into consideration the enormous popularity of the Eiffel 
Tower and the consequent pecuniary benefits conferred on 
those interested in that undertaking, it is not too much to 
anticipate that, in the course of a short time, every important 
country will possess its tall Tower. The project of erecting a 
great Tower in London soon found the willing support of 
many capitalists, who felt convinced that if the scheme were 
properly laid before the public there would be no great 
difficulty in accomplishing the object. 

A company was formed, viz. : The Tower Company, 
Limited, the promoters being the following gentlemen : 
Sir Edward W. Watkin, Bart., M.P., E. H. Carbutt, 
Esq., M.Inst.C.E., William Mewburn, Esq., Captain 
Francis Pavy, R. W. Perks, Esq., Henry D. Pochin, 
Esq., J. P., and the late T. A. Walker, Esq., contractor 
for the Manchester Ship Canal, Severn Tunnel, and other 
works. These gentlemen at once proceeded to place the 
scheme before the public. The first step in this direction 
was to invite designs to be submitted for competition, two 
prizes being offered, the value of which were 500 guineas 
and 250 guineas. 

The response to this invitation resulted in sixty- 
eight designs and suggestions being sent in, some of 
which were from the United States, Germany, Australia, 
Sweden, Italy, Austria, Turkey, and Canada. The verv 
great public interest which the exhibition of the drawings 
created has induced the promoters to publish the principal 



elevations, engraved to a uniform reduced scale of 300 feet to 
an inch, in the following pages. 

To adjudicate upon the merits of the designs, a Com- 
mittee of Jurors was appointed, among whom were Sir 
Frederick Bramwell, Sir Benjamin Baker, Sir Edward 
J. Harland, M.P., Mr. J. F. Moulton, Q.C., Professor 
Alex. B. W. Kennedy, Mr. Charles Liddell, C.E., 
Mr. Verity, and Mr. E. H. Carbutt, Chairman. 

After very careful consideration, the first prize of 500 
Guineas was awarded to Messrs. A. D. Stewart, J. M. 
McLaren and W. Dunn, of London, and the second prize 
of 250 Guineas was gained by Messrs. J. J. Webster and 
W. Haigh, of Liverpool. 

The jurors honourably mentioned the design of Mr. 
Max am Ende, and expressed a high opinion of ingenuity 
displayed in many of the other designs. 

Both the Prize Designs are for steel structures, octagonal 
in form, the first being 1,200 feet, and the second, 1,300 feet 
high. 

Sir Benjamin Baker has consented to become Engineer 
of the project, and he will, with his wide engineering ex- 
perience, make the Tower unexceptionable, not only as an 
engineering structure, but as a work of utility. 

It is proposed that the Tower shall be much more 
spacious and of greater altitude than the Eiffel Tower, with 
a view to its being still more useful, and to accommodate 
a larger portion of the public. Special facilities for pleasure- 
seekers will be provided, such as Restaurants, Theatre, 
Shops, Turkish Baths, Promenades, Winter Gardens, and 
a variety of other amusements, which will not only afford 
healthful recreation for the million, but, it is anticipated, 
will insure a profitable return for the Shareholders. 

The Tower will be provided with Elevators, and upon the 
top stage will be an Observatory and rooms for scientific 
experiments, which will form a very interesting feature Of 



this undertaking. Experiments in signalling from the Eiffel 
Tower have already been made, with the result that it has 
been successfully accomplished at a distance of 75 miles. 
Observations in recording the intensity and direction of the 
wind under varying conditions, the micrographic study of the 
air, and the question of the existence of bacillae in certain 
pure and rarified media, are only a few of the important 
investigations which would be demonstrated. Astronomical 
observations from this immense height, with such purity of 
air, and freedom from mists, will extend our knowledge in this 
branch of science, and render meteorological photography 
more perfect. 

Doctors in Paris have already discovered the benefits to 
be derived by patients suffering from pneumonia and throat 
affections, and many under their advice have availed them- 
selves of the " pure air cure'" on the Eiffel Tower with very 
beneficial results, thus the Tower may be utilized in the 
interests of suffering humanity. 

Many sites have been suggested as suitable for the 
Tower, with the result that the high land between Willesden 
and Harrow at Wembly Park, has been selected (subject to 
further consideration), consisting of an estate of 2S0 acres, 
of which 150 may be appropriated for the use of the Tower 
and surrounding Park. This Tower -would stand at a con- 
siderable elevation instead of as in the case of Eiffel Tower 
being at the river level. 

The natural beauty of this well- wooded country, and facility 
of access (being only 1 2 minutes from Baker Street by railway), 
render it a most desirable site, particularly as the Metropolitan 
Railway passes through it, and that company is constructing 
a special station for the accommodation of visitors, and have 
agreed to book passengers in concert with other companies 
from all parts of England at through far .-s. 



The following is a Copy of the Specification issued by 
the Promoters on November ist, 1889. 



Tower. 



The Promoters offer Prizes of 500 guineas for the best 
and of 250 guineas for the second best Design and 
Estimate for a Tower of not less than 1,200 feet 

in height 



Opacification. 

1. The designer will assume that the foundations are 
perfect — that is to say, sand, stone, hard clay, or gravel — and 
will estimate accordingly. 

2. The structure must be so designed as to resist wind 
pressure, sudden storms, and be guarded as regards light- 
ning. The material preferred is steel, but the designer is not 
to be confined to the use of that, or any other material. The 
designer may consider, if steel be used, a stability, under a 
maximum wind pressure of 561bs. per square foot, the stress 
on the steel not to exceed yh tons per square inch, and under 
an assumed pressure of double that amount, the structure to 
be stable as a whole, but he will adopt his own strength and 
strains. 

3. As regards lifts, the designer can either provide for one 
vertical lift from the bottom to top, or a series of lifts. The 
safety of the lifts is matter of first importance. Speed is 
important. 

4. The Tower must be divided into such number of storeys 
as the designer thinks will best suit his design, while giving 
adequate floor space, and each of these storeys must be capa- 
ble of hearing the weight of restaurants, offices, &c. The lifts 
must he supplemented as from storey to storey by staircases. 
As matter of information, it may be mentioned that the 
" Eiffel " Tower has two " Roux " lifts to the first platform, 



which can raise together 2,400 visitors per hour ; two " Otis " 
lifts, together. 800 per hour; and one "Edoux"' lift, from 
second to third platform, 800 per hour. Speed, feet per 
minute: •' Roux," 197; "Otis,"' 394; and "Edoux," 177. 

5. Provision must be made for Electric Lighting, &c. 

6. It is not intended in these suggestions to do more than 
give outlines for the guidance of the designer, ; as it is desired 
that he should have full liberty in the combinations he chooses 
to eflect. 

7. Designs to be accompanied by bills of quantities 
and estimates of: — 

a. The weight (and description) of material. 

b. Cost of lifts (with description). 

c. Cost of labour, and superintendence in construction. 

8. The designs and estimates are open to all competitors, 
and must be sent in on or before the end of February next, 
unless further time be applied for by foreign competitors. Any 
such application will be considered on its merits. 

9. The Jury who will decide on designs and estimates sent 
in will be: — 

Sir Frederick Bramwell, F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 

Benjamin Baker, Esq., M.Inst.C.E. 

Sir Edward Harland. Bart , M.P. 

Prof. Alex. B. W. Kennedy, F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 

Charles Liddell, Esq., C.E. 

J. F. Moulton, Esq., Q.C.. F.R.S., Assoc.Inst.C.E. 

T. A. Walker, Esq , Assoc.Inst.C.E. 

Thomas Verity, Esq., F.R.I B.A,, F.C.L. 

E. H. CARBUTT, M.Inst.C.E., Chairman. 
with power to add to their number. 

_jio. The designs will be publicly exhibited (with or with- 
out the name and address of the designer, as the designer 
himself may decide) in London prior to, or subsequently to, 
adjudication. 

EDWARD W. WATKIN, 

E. H. CARBUTT, 

WILLIAM MEWBURN, 

FRANCIS PAW, 

R. W. PERKS, 

HENRY D. POCHIN, 

T. A. WALKER, 

Alfred B. Garside, Secretary. 
Offices of the Company, 

St. Stephen's Chambers, 

Westminster, S.W. 



DESIGN Xo. 1. 




By M. T. OTIS, Rochester, U.S.A. 



II 



DESIGN No. 1. 

By M. T. OTIS, Rochester, U.S.A. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1.355 feet. 

Ba.se — 400 feet square. 
Weight— If of Iron, 26,500 tons; if of Steel, 21,300 tons. 

Material of Design submitted— Chiefly Iron. 

Cost — No Cost given. 



MAIN FEATURES CLAIMED: 



A Banquet Room, 400 feet square, 50 feet high. 
A Balcony 50 feet wide all round at the top of first section. 
Three Elevators and winding stairs. An Observatory 
57 feet square. 

The top of the Tower is surmounted by a gilt ball, 
30 feet diameter. 

Bolts are used throughout instead of rivets. 

It is claimed that " there can be no swaying by the 
wind.'" 

The Tower proper is supported upon 64 posts, thus 
distributing the weight over a large area, and thereby pre- 
venting settlement, should the foundation not be sufficiently 
solid. 



12 



DESIGN No. 2. 




"vm'srffiE* 



By D. VERNON, Topsham. 



13 



DESIGN No. 2. 



By D. VERNON, Topsham, Devon. 



Height— 1,225 feet - 



H 



DESIGN No. 3. 




•MVVST/1I£S 



"NORTHUMBRIAN." 
JOHN BATEY, 47, Heytesbury Street, Dublin. 



J 5 
DESIGN No. :>. — " Northumbrian." 

JOHN BATEY , 

47, Heytesbury Street, Dublin. 

PARTICULARS . 

Height — i, 216 feet. 
Base — Square, Length of Side, 520 feet. 

Weight— 9,574 tons. 
Material— Steel. 

Cost— ^"40,957. 



MAIN FEATURES CLAIMED : 

The main supports consist of 4 steel tubes, 3 
feet diameter at top and 15 feet diameter at bottom. 

The absence of all strains except compression. 

The upper end of each tube to form a cistern for 
water for working the hoists, &c. 

The top of Tower is arranged for lighthouse illu- 
mination. The total weight of lantern, &c, above the top of 
tubes is under 20 tons. Four lifts to the top platform of Tower 
— two cages being used to balance the remaining two — thus 
very little power would be required. On the outside each lift 
a staircase is provided. 



i6 



DESIGN No. 4. 




SA&V&r/?/£S 



By H. FIDLER, Lyndhurst, Grove Park, Chiswi 



CK. 



! 7 
DESIGN Xo. 4 . 

By H. FIDLER, 

Lyndhurst Grove Park, Chiswick. 

PARTICULARS . 

Height — 1,200 feet. 
Ba.se — 500 feet square. 

Weight — 11,500 tons. 

Material— Steel. 
Cost— ,£350,000. 



MAIN FEATURES CLAIMED : 

The calculation for wind pressure is taken ut 56 lbs, 
per square foot upon an area equal to three times the net area 
seen in front elevation. The vertical lift shaft for the entire 
height of 1,200 feet is surrounded by a continuous stair- 
case. Two separate and independent staircases will 
be provided from the ground to the first floor, and one stair- 
case the remainder of the height. 

There are 4 cages, having a speed of 280 feet per 
minute, each cage to hold 60 people, capable of convey- 
ing 1,440 persons per hour, from the ground level to fourth 
floor. The top of the Tower is surmounted by a lantern 
with Electric Light. 

B 



DESIGN No. 5. 



"CIRCUMFERENTIALLY, RADIALLY, AND DIAGONALLY 
BOUND." 

C. BAILLAIRGE, City Engineer, Quebec, Canada. 



19 

DESIGN No. 5. — " Circumferential! y, Radially and 
Diagonally Bound. 

C. BAILLAIRGE, 

City Engineer, Quebec, Canada. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— i, 600 feet. 

Ba.se — Circular. 

Weight — 14,303 tons. 

Materials — Cast and Wrought Iron. 
Cost — 925,516 dollars. 



MAIN FEATURES CLAIMED: 

Capability of being taken down in sections — each 
section being useful for other purposes. All bolted together 
instead of being rivetted. There are elevators and stairs, 
and galleries at each stage 20 feet in width, excepting those 
to four upper tiers which are 10 feet wide. The structure being 
closed, the wind pressure is calculated at 56 lbs. There are 
204,000 square feet, and the maximum wind pressure exerted 
is 4,204 tons. The resistance is as 3-4 to 1. The factor of 
safety would be increased if the glazing were to be blown out 
in a hurricane. The vertical pressure exerted on the founda- 
tion area is less than ^ ton to each superficial foot, with a 
maximum pressure of lyL- ton per superficial foot. Lighting 
by Electricity is the method adopted. 



DESIGN No. 6. 





IfWTTT 1 1 hi 

11(1' 




By S. FISHER, 32, Eagle Wharf Road, London, N. 



DESIGN Xo. tf. 



By S. FISHES, 



32, Eagle Wharf Road, London, N. 



PARTICULARS. 

Height — 2,000 feet, capable of being reduced tc 1,700 feet, 
1,500 feet, or 1,250 feet. 

Ba.Se — Circular, Diameter equal to ^ height. 



1,250 feet. 
104,289 tons. 



1,500 feet. 
172,962 tons. 



Weight- 

1,750 feet. 



2 34>493 tcns - 



2,000 feet. 
312,550 tons. 



Materials — Cast and Wrought Iron. 



Cost 



1,250 ft. high 
^1,065,365. 



1,500 ft. high 
^i>75§>995- 



1,750 ft. high 
/2,381,48c 



2,000 ft. high 
;£"3> * 59,500. 



MAIN FEATURES CLAIMED : 

A spiral column ornamented to form a " National 
Monument" — in short, a "Monument of Hieroglyphics 
emblematical of British History during Queen Victoria's 
Reign." It is suggested to run a locomotive engine 
and train half-way up the spiral gradient. The gradient 
would begin at 1 in 20 and gradually increase to 1 in 10. It 
is intended to have 12 hydraulic lifts, and engine power 
of 500 nominal horse power. 



DESIGN No. 7. 




By KINKEL and POHL, Washington, U.S.A. 



23 

DESIGN No. 7. 

By KINKEL and POHL, 

Washington, U.S.A. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1250 feet. 

Base — Circular, Diameter of Base, 192 feet. 

Weight — Not given. 

Material — Steel throughout. 

Cost — 1,687,900 dollars. 

MAIN FEATURES CLAIMED: 

This Tower consists of 16 hyperbolic curved legs 
of latticed steel, diminishing from 30 feet at the bottom to 5 
feet at the top. The architectural ornamental work is in 
modern Indian Oriental style, with large promenade terraces, 
pavilions, minarets, &c. "The principal features are the 
mighty proportions of the Tower," the large public lobby with 
a mighty dome 192 feet diameter, and with a total floor space 
of 80,000 square feet. There are 4 elevators, in sections, 
to run at 250 feet per minute. The wind pressure is cal- 
culated at 60 lbs. per square foot. The globe at the apex is 
25 feet diameter, and contains 16 powerful electric lights. 
The balconies are also provided with electric lights. On the 
ground floor are 12 large rooms useful for restaurants, 
bazaars, &c, each of about 4,000 square feet ; similar 
rooms are provided on every floor. 



2 4 



DESIGN No. 6. 




\\P." 



F. O. PEARSON and B. H. WALLIN, 
Goteborgs Mek Werkstad, Goteborg, Sweden. 



2 5 
DESIGN No. S. ("W>.") 

F.ZO. PERSSON and B. H. WALLIN, 

Goteborgs Mek Werkstad, Goteborg, 
Sweden. 

PARTICULARS. 
Height — 1,200 feet. 
Ba.se — Hexagonal. 

Weight — 7,000 tons. 
Material— Steel. 

Cost— Not given. 

The total cost of the lifts amounts to about ^"15,000. The 

cost of the construction and superintendence of the 

building amounts to about ^"12,000. 

CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

The principal bearing member of this design is a 
cylindrical or hexagonal tube, built of steel plates, 
sufficiently large in diameter to allow of elevators to move 
up and down. This tube is 36 feet diameter at base, and 15 
feet at the top, and rests at its base on 6in. roll bearings, 7 
feet long, the journals being 2 feet diameter and 7 feet long. 
This Tower is hexagonal in shape, and is divided into 4 main 
stories, the lowest of which has a superficial area of 60,000 
square feet. The second story has a floor space of 23,000 
square feet. Total floor space equal to 130,000 square 
feet. Staircases and lifts are provided. 



26 



DESIGN No. <». 




/wous r/7/rs 



"MULTUM IN PARVO." 
R. NETTLE, Redruth. 



2 7 



DESIGN No. 9.— "Multum in Parvo. 



R. NETTLE, Redruth. 



PARTICULARS. 



Height — 1,500 feet. 
Weight— Not given. 

Materials - Steel and Iron. 

Cost -/"204.941 is. od. 



28 



DESIGN No. 10. 




" MY TOWER." 

F. WILKINS, 13, Poland Street, London, W 



29 



DESIGN No. 10.— " My Tower." 

F. WILKINS, C.E., 
13, Pola nd Street, London, W. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height — 1,234 feet. 
Base — 40 feet in diameter. 
Materials— Steel and glass. 

Cost — /"io7,ooo. 

CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

The Tower contains residences and offices. There 
are 12 automatic lifts. The downward motion of the lifts 
will supply pure air, which may be laid on to houses, &c. It 
is lighted by Electricity. All the metal is to be enamelled. 

The designer proposes to build this Tower in Ken- 
sington Gardens, or in the Exhibition Road, and that it 
should be used for model lodgings, residential flats, public 
and private offices, observatories, exhibitions, shows, library 
patent office, courts of arbitration, stock exchange, County 
Council, scientific institutions, and all other measures tending 
to civilize and educate the human race. Fireproof chambers 
for deeds, &c, picture galleries, art, science and literature, 
practical polytechnical institution, including education in 
agriculture, horticulture, &c, and numerous other purposes, 
including the supply of pure air to houses in the neighbour- 
hood, laid on by pipes as gas is. This Tower would, in case 
of war, be used for signalling. The building of this Tower 
would take twelve months. 



3° 



DESIGN No. 11. 




E. S. SHAW, Bost< n, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 



3i 
DESIGN No. 11. 

E. S. SHAW, 
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A . 

PARTICULARS . 

Height — i, 400 feet, with signal shaft another 100 feet, fixed 

to the top. 
Ba.Se — Square, having sides of 500 feet. 

Weight — Of metal only, 17,790 tons. 

Materials— Steel and Iron. 

Cost-^575.933- 
CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 



To have Tubular Columns at the corners of the 
square. The Ground Floor consists of 4 Pavilions of a total 
area of 74,000 square feet. The first, or principal floor, is 
360 feet high, and is called the Promenade Floor. It is 300 
feet square, and covers a net area of 75,000 square feet. The 
Drawing Room Floor is 575 feet above the ground, and con- 
tains 28,000 square feet. The Observation Floors are at a 
height of 1,200 feet to 1.230 feet above the ground, 100 feet 
square, with an area of 10,000 square feet, with covered 
gallery. Above these floors is provided a Weather Observa- 
tory, surmounted by a Lantern 10 feet diameter, for a 
powerful Electric Light from the roof of which observations 
may be made 1,400 feet above the ground. From the 
Promenade Floor to the Weather Observatory Floor, a 
distance of 950 feet, there is a single shaft, situated in the 
centre of the Tower, and provided with four wells for lifts. 
Two independent staircases, 3 feet wide, are provided out- 
side this shaft, one for ascent, the other for descent. Speed 
of two lifts, 400 feet per minute, of remaining two lifts, 200 feet 
per minute. The total wind pressure upon the Tower is 
estimated at 3,000 tons, at 56 lbs. per square foot. 



DESIGN No. 12. 




I 




jfn^i 



'££" .I2S 




E. W'OKRAL & CO.. -20, Bvkom Street, Liverpool. 



33 
DESIGN No. 12. 

E. WORRAL & CO., 

26, Byrom Street, Liverpool. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height — t,2oo feet. 
Base — Square. 
Weight — Not stated. 
Material— Mild Steel. 

Cost— Not stated. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

The top stage of the Tower measures 195 feet square, 
contains a Band Stand and Observatory and Restaurants. 
The roof is of steel and glass. The support from the ground 
is a rectangular shaft, 125 feet square at its narrowest points. 
The top stage therefore overhangs the shaft by 35 feet all 
round, supported by brackets. 

There are four lifts, each containing 875 superficial 
feet, and there are four distinct staircases, each 20 feet wide, 
with resting places every 9 feet. The ground floor contains 
Machinery Rooms, Offices, &c, and projects on each side of 
the main shaft for about 40 feet, forming an area of over 
40,000 superficial feet. The first and second stages project 
beyond the main shaft and are supported by brackets in a 
similar manner to the top stage. The first stage is 400 feet 
from the ground and is enclosed in sheet steel walls, as is also 
the ground floor ; it contains stalls for merchandise, Restaur- 
ants, Promenade. The basement below this floor are large 
Dining Halls, Kitchens, Restaurants and Lavatories, and 
above is a Music Hall, with Promenade, Restaurants, 
and Lavatories, &c, &c. The second stage is 1,000 feet from 
the ground and contains Large Entertainment Hall, 
Restaurant, &c. Two of the lifts are arranged to stop at the 
different stages, and two to make express journeys at a high 
speed to the Grand Promenade at the top, 1,200 feet high. 



34 



DESIGN No. 13 



mm 

Mm 

mmm 



: l iraj; .l. l ll .. 



THOS. V. TREW, 
26, Tarbert Road, East Dulwich Grove, London, S.E. 



35 
DESIGN No. 13. 

THOS. V. TREW, 

26, Tarbert Road, East Dulwich Grove, 

London, S.E. 

PARTICULARS. 



Height — 1,267 feet- 
Base — Circular. 400 feet diameter, with 40 feet extra of 

buildings. 

Weight— 11,770 tons. 

Materials— Steel and Iron. 

Cost — Exclusive of Steel — ^"260,000. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

This design is emblematical of the " Crown," 
supported upon the United Kingdom (represented by the 
" Rose, Shamrock and Thistle " with the Colonies and 
British Possessions for a base. There are 18 Vertical 
Girders bound together, and at the top is the Crown, the 
interior of which is lighted by 18 arc electric lamps. The 
platforms are arranged for Restaurants inside, and 
Promenades outside, being formed in terraces on the 
periphery to afford better view for a large number of people. 
There are seven lifts, 4 to first platform, 3 from there to 
summit, each to carry 30 passengers. The buildings round 
the base are of brickwork, stuccoed, intended for Bazaars, 
Engine and Boiler Sheds, or any suitable use. 



36 
DESIGN No. 14. 




//tDVS Tfl/ES 



J. I. THORNYCROFT, Chiswick, London- 



37 
DESIGN No. 14. 

J . I. THORNYCROFT, 

Chiswic k, London. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height — 1,760 feet, equal 1 mile. 
Base — Triangular. 

Weight— 16,830 tons. 
Material - Steel. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

This Tower is formed by three principal members 
or tubes. Lifts are supported and propelled by air pressure 
which fit in continuous tubes, extending from the bottom 
to the top of Tower. Staircases are also provided. The 
total number of people that can be accommodated on 
the Tower is 20,000 at one time. 

The balanced air-pressure lifts have been especially 
designed for this Tower, two being express lifts from the base 
to the top, and one stopping at each stage. 



3§ 



DESIGN No. 15. 




W. H. WOODCOCK, 
6, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 



39 
DESIGN No. 15. 

W. H. WOODCOCK, 

6, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1.300 feet. 

Base — Octagonal, 310 feet diameter. 

Weight— Metal work only, 12,000 tons. 

Material — Steel. 

Cost— ^"349,250 (excepting cost of ornamentation.) 

CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

This Tower is divided into four stories, at each of 
which, excepting the top, two platforms are provided, the 
space between the lower and upper platforms being utilised 
for restaurants, shops, post and telegraphic offices, the 
upper platforms being left clear for promenading. There are 
separate platforms for landing and despatching passengers. 
The upper and lower platforms are connected by short lifts 
or staircases. The platform areas at the various stages are 
— 1st stage, 63,000 square feet ; 2nd stage, 26,400 square 
feet ; 3rd stage, 8,600. Top of Tower, 2,000 square feet. 

Electrically-driven lifts are proposed, also 
Electric Lighting. 

The speed of lifts is 200 feet per minute as a maximum. 
Special attention has been given to the safety of the lifts. The 
boiler-house is placed at some distance from the Tower to 
avoid heat and chimney dirt. Double Staircases are pro- 
vided from base to top of Tower, one for ascending, the other 
for descending. The timber used is rendered fireproof. 

It is proposed to have a naval projector for the top 
lantern. 



4° 
DESIGN No. 16. 




1 

\ 



//vot/srff/cs 



E. DE VERE BUCKINGHAM, 

St. John Street, Winchester. 



4 1 



DESIGN No. 16. 



E. DE VERE BUCKINGHAM, 

St. John Street, Winchester- 



PARTICULARS 

Height— 1,700 feet. 
Material— Steel. 

Cost— ^235,603. 



4?. 



DESIGN No. 17. 



n "l'"m,„, 1JT 



' ;| *W 



J. HORTON, Copley, near Halifax, Yorks. 



43 
DESIGN No. 17. 

J. HORTON , 

Copley, near Halifax, Yorks. 

PARTICULARS . 

Height— 1,200 feet. 
Base — 180 feet diameter. The top measures 42 feet diameter. 

Weight— 16,760 tons. 

Material— Corrugated Steel. 

Cost— ,£"399,600. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

The shell of the Tower to be constructed of corrugated 
steel with 60 corrugations. The corrugations to run in 
straight channels from the bottom to the top. The bottom 
plates to be 1 inch thick, with a radius of 4 feet 6 inches and to 
taper to the top of the Tower to corrugations 9 inch radius of 
I inch plates. A Spiral Promenade from the bottom to the 
top is provided, also a Spiral Road for Tramcars reaching 
only half way up. The gradients to be 1 in 10. 

A Telescopic Lift 150 feet long, is intended to be 
used in calm weather, worked by hydraulic power, the tube 
to be 6 feet diameter. The ram to be 18 inches diameter, 300 
feet long, with its cylinder 3 feet diameter. There are 24 
floors, 50 feet apart, and 72 hydraulic lifts, 3 for each floor. 



4+ 



DESIGN No. 18. 








J. H. -M. HARRISON-VASEY, 
24, Vicarage Terrace, Sunderland. 



45 
DESIGN No. 18. 

J. H. M. HARRISON- VASEY, 
24, Vicarage Terrace, Sunderland. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height — 1,820 teet. 

Base — Circular. Area of site, 20 acres. 

Weight — 30,000 tons. 

Material— Steel. 
Cost — £1 ,000,000. 

CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

A large floor area and a spiral road of about 2| miles 
under which a descending Railway is constructed, the 
incline of both being 1 in 20. The ground floor consists of 
lift station, waiting rooms, engine rooms, and general 
offices. The floors are constructed entirely of steel girders. 
A captive parachute to hold 4 persons, led in guides, is 
fitted in one of the corner towers, and regulated by a brake. The 
observatory floor is the highest, being 1,780 feet above the 
ground. This Tower to be fastened down by 64 steel bolts 36 
feet long, and 3 feet diameter. 



i-jr.^\.Kj±\ ino. ±y. 




///Oi/ST/r/cr 
"THE CENTURY TOWER." 

J. W. COUCHMAN, Pembury Road, Tottenham, 
London. 



47 



DESIGN No. 19.— "The Century To wer." 

J. W. COUCHMAN , 
Pembury Road, Tottenham, London. 

PARTICULARS. 
Height— 1,900 feet. 

Ba.se — Circular. 

Weight — 44,118 tons of metal. 

Material— Steel. 

Cost— ^2,250,987. 



4 8 



DESIGN No. 20. 




INDUS TP/ES 



T. C. CLARKE, M.Inst.C.E., Broadway, New York 



Prof. JOSEPH MAYER, Union Bridge, Con., U.S.A., 
and W. HILDENBRAND. 



49 

DESIGN No. 20. 



T. C. CLARKE, M.Inst.C.E., 
Broadway, New York ; 

Prof. JOSEPH MAYER, 

Union Bridge, Connecticut, U. S. A., and 

W. HILDENBRAND. 



PARTICULARS . 

Height — 1,280 feet. 

Base — 350 feet square. The main skeleton of Tower is 
octagonal, the lower portion being carried out in a 
square form. 

Weight — 7,070 tons of metal. 

Material— Steel 
Cost -^315,000. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

Great architectural elegance, with lifts and a 
circular staircase. This Tower has a capacity nearly 
double that of the Eiffel Tower. The floors are to be of 
concrete, laid on corrugated steel plates. The main stairway 
to have india-rubber treads. The time for completion would 
not exceed 18 months. " Otis " lifts are provided. 

D 



5° 



DESIGN No. 21. 




M>i/sr/fffs 



"LIGHT, HEALTH, REST, PLEASURE." 
JAMES J. ARNOLD, Lincoln's Eastleigh, Southampton. 



5 1 
DESIGN No. 21. — "Light, Health, Rest, Pleasure. 

JAMES J. ARNOLD, 



Li ncolns Eastleigh, Southampton. 
PARTICULARS . 

Height— 1,320 feet, or | mile. 

Base — Hexagonal base, resolving itself into a circular 
column above. 

Weight— 142,207 tons. 

Materials— Steel and Iron. 

Cost— Not stated. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

In the first place, the greatest lighting surface for 
the interior. A celiular system is adopted, thereby insuring 
greater steadiness. There are six platforms. Restaurants, 
Dining Rooms, Offices, and a Chapel, Hotel, and Sana- 
torium are provided. The upper portion of the Tower is to 
be covered with glass, thus forming a Crystal Tower. 
Electric Light is provided. Lifts to travel at 600 feet 
per minute, worked by Electricity. The general scheme of the 
skeleton is that of a circular column resting on a hollow 
hexagonal plinth, provided with broad radiating wings. 



52 

DESIGN No. 22. 




"ALTIORA PETO." 

HENRY ROSE, 
2, Princes Mansions, Victoria Street, London, S.W. ; 

E. J. EDWARDS, M.Inst.C.E., 
12, Dartmouth Street, Westminster. 



53 
DESIGN Xo. 22.— " Altiora Peto." 

HENRY ROSE, 

2, Princes Mansions, Victoria Street, 

London, S.W. ; 

E. J. EDW ARDS, M.Inst.C.E., 

12, Dartmouth Street, Westminster. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,274 ^et- 
Bcise — Octagonal. 470 feet at base, tapering to 4c feet 
diameter at top. 
Weight — 16,000 tons of Steel. 
Materials — Steel framing, carrying tiles or terra-cotta 
panels, lined inside with match boarding and carton- 
pierre glass would be largely used. 

Cost— ^"537,800. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

A two-track spiral Electric Railway, gradient 
1 in 6, "Otis" Lifts, and two Staircases, 12 feet wide. The 
8 main ribs or vertical girders are formed of four cruciform 
shaped columns. Each rib is 110 feet by 40 feet at the 
bottom, tapered to 10 feet by 10 feet at the top. There are 
8 stages including the Lantern. 

The Electric Railway would travel at 5 miles per 
hour, and 1,600 passengers per hour could be conveyed by it. 
The same installation would be used for Electric Lighting. 

This Tower is provided with the usual Restaurants, 
Offices, Shops. There are 6 Bungalows on the 3rd stage 
and a Photographic room. On the 4th stage are 4 Club- 
houses, proposed to be let to London Clubs, with stage 
below. On the 5th stage, 2 large Dining or Reception 
Rooms to be let for private entertainments. On the 6th or 
top stage there are 4 look-out Bays, 1 Meteorological Room, 
Photographic Room, small Cafe, and a room for a Siren 
Foghorn to be used in conjunction with a Phonograph for 
advertising purposes. A powerful Electric Searchlight 
would be fixed in the Lantern, and a projector provided. 



CO 



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55 
DESIGN No. 23.—" Ajax 4314390." 



J. KELLY, 

Pyrmont House, Winchmore Hill, 
London, N. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height — 2,000 feet. 

Ba.se — -Square (1,672 feet side), containing a superficial area 
of 64 acres. 

Weight — 25,000 tons (exclusive of lifts and machinery). 

Material— Steel throughout. 

Cost — (For erecting and superintendence only) ^"120,000. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

The different floors are reached by Lifts of the 
simplest type, working within the open columns at the 
corner of each main upright. This Tower is lighted by 
Electricity generated by the same engine which works the 
Lifts. It is designed for the special requirements of 
holding several Exhibitions simultaneously upon the 
different stages. 



56 



DESIGN No. 2J, 




"GORDON." 



A. C. CUMMINGS, 
26, Maygrove Road, Kilburn, London, N.YV 



J/ 
DESIGN No. 24.- "Gordon. 



A. C. CUMMINGS, 

26, Maygrove Road , Kilburn, 

London, N.W. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,235 feet - 

Weight— Not given. 

Materia!— Steel. 

Cost — ^"530,000, including foundations. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

There are 12 main columns of Steel, 2 inches thick 
at bottom, and -J- inch at the top. The columns up to the 
first floor will be filled with cement and stone ballast, to add 
stability and rigidity to the structure. There are 8 floors or 
stages. American Elevators are provided, also the Electric 
Light. 



58 



DESIGN No. 25. 




C. LEAN, M.Inst.C.E., 
72, Palace Chambers, Westminster, S.W 



59 
DESIGN No. 25. 

C. LEAN, M.Inst.C.E., 
72, Palace Chambers, Westminster, S.W. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— i, 200 feet. 

Base — Hexagonal. 

Weight— Not stated. 

Material— Steel. 

Cost — Not stated. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

This design has been prepared to accommodate a 
number of comparatively small Lifts. One, two, or more 
can be used at a time, according to the requirements of 
visitors, and some can be under repair without stopping the 
traffic of the Tower. This Tower is divided into six lengths, 
and for the present it is not intended to place floors excepting 
on the first, third, and sixth lengths. This design has a very 
large diameter at the top to obtain considerable floor space. 
The Tower consists of 6 main columns, each of which is com- 
posed of six minor columns, the bracing of which is so formed 
as to leave a space in the middle of each main column for the 
passage of lifts, or for a staircase, waiting-rooms, &c. 
Hydraulic rams are introduced, as in the Eiffel Tower, to 
adjust for settlement of foundations. On the top floor is a 
building for scientific observations. It is proposed to use 
Lifts, and to illuminate by the Electric Light. 



6o 



DESIGN No. 26. 




MAXIMUS 



T. R. THOMAS and W. F. LEWIS, 

20, Pembroke Terrace, Cardiff. 



6i 
DESIGN Xo. 21',.— " Maximus." 

T. R. THOMAS and W. F. LEWIS, 

20, Pembroke Terrace, Cardiff, 

PARTICULARS. 

Height — 1,240 feet. 
Base - Square. 

Weight— 18,891 tons. 
Material— Steel. 

Cost — ,£"163,075, including foundations. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

The foundations consist of 16 steel boxes, in groups 
of 4 each. The pressure on bed plates to be not more than 
3^ tons per square foot. From each of the above feet springs 
a circular tube of 12 feet diameter, with internal tubes and 
webs to gain sufficient sectional area, gradually diminishing to 
a single tube of 49 feet diameter at the second platform, at 
which point the inner tubes are terminated in a connecting 
cap. The structure is continued from this point to the sum- 
mit in the form of 8 single tubes arranged in a square. At a 
height ot 303 feet is a Concert Hall, 165 feet square, sur- 
rounded with Shops, Hotels, &c. At a height of 722 feet 
is a building, containing 12,100 square feet, for promenading. 
The 3rd platform is at a height of 945 feet. There are 8 lifts 
from bottom stage and 3 lifts above, the lower ones to be 
hydraulic, the upper ones pneumatic. 

The lighting is by Electricity throughout. 

A stairway is provided in each leg up to first 
platform and one from that to the top. 



02 



DESIGN No. 27. 




P. CAMPANAKIS, 

Pera Maison Sech-Han No. 28, Constantinople. 



63 



DESIGN No. 27. 



P. CAMPANAKIS, 

Pera Maison Sech-Han No. 28 , 
Constantinople. 



PARTICULARS. 

Height— 365 metres. 

Ba.se — Triangular. 
Weight— Not stated. 

Material— Iron. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

Moderate cost, great strength and stability, 
beautiful and original in design. There are 11 elevators. 



64 



DESIGN No. 28. 




TIME IS MONEY." 



A. BRIAND, 
ii, Rue Corbeau, Anzin, Nord, France. 



65 



DESIGN No. 28.— "Time is Money." 



A. BBIAND, 

11, Rue Corbeau, Anzin, Nord, France. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height — i, 200 feet. 
Sase —Triangular. 

Material— Steel. 
Cost -^"218,000. 



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67 



DESIGN No. 29.— "A.P.B." 

ALBERT BRUNEL, 
Quai de Paris, 3, Rouen. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 2,296 feet. 
Base — Circular, 574 feet diameter. 

Weight— 196,702 Tons. 

Material —Granite. 

Cost -^1,104,325. 



68 



DESIGN No. 30. 




nou S TRIES 



O. C. D. ROSS, M.Inst.C.E., 
15, Relf Road, East Dulwich. 



6 9 
DESIGN No. SO. 



O. C. D. ROSS, M.Inst.C.E., 
15, Relf Road, East Dulwich. 

PARTICULARS. 
Height— 1,260 feet. 

Weight — 6,150 Tons of Cast Steel Columns. 820 Tons ol 
Wrought Iron. 800 Tons of Cast Iron. 

Materials — Iron and Steel. 

Cost — ^"209,250, including Lifts and Foundations. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

The skeleton of the Tower consists of Cast Steel 
Tubes, and it is designed to differ as much as possible from 
the Eiffel Tower. The ornamentation consists chiefly of 
representations of the Rose, the Thistle and the Shamrock. 
This Tower would consist of a number of parallel Cast Steel 
Tubes each 10 feet long, placed vertically one above the 
other, the numbers of tubes gradually becoming less towards 
the top. Joints of Cast Steel Tubes, made telescopic. The 
Electric Light is provided, and 10 Hydraulic Lifts. 



7 o 



DESIGN No. 31 




J. C. CHAPMAN, 
52, Elthorne Road, Holloway, London. 



7 1 



DESIGN No. 31. 



J. C. CHAPMAN, 



52, Elthorne Road, Holloway, London, 



Height — 1,200 feet. 



DESIGN No. 32. 




JAIOUS Tff/es 



J. T. BATEMAN. 

ii, Beulah Road West, Thornton Heath 

London. 



73 
DESIGN No. 32. 

J. T. BATEMAN, 

11, Beulah Road West, Thornton Heath, 

LONDON. 

PARTICULARS. 



Height— 1,260 feet. 

Ba.se — Hexagonal. 370 feet diameter. 
Weight— 9,243^ tons of Metal. 

Material— Steel. 

Cost— ,£"285,278 : 14s. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

This Tower would be divided into four stages, at 
the respeaive heights of 200, 500, 800, 1,200 feet from the 
ground level. No. 1 stage is 185 feet diameter. No. 2 
stage 85 feet diameter. No. 3 stage 50 feet diameter. No. 
4 stage 45 feet diameter, with glass dome. A gallery is 
provided round each of the stages 8 feet 6 inches to 10 feet 
wide. Lifts and Staircases are also provided. The kind 
of lifts is not decided, steam being proposed. Additional 
floors, in future, may be fixed, without interfering with the 
stability of structure. Electric Lighting is provided. 



74 



DESIGN No. 33. 




E. DUNCAN, 

3, Crossfield Road, Belsize Park, London, N.W. 



75 



DESIGN No. 33.— "E." 

E. DUNCAN, 

3, Crossfield Road, Belsize Park, 

London, N.W. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,218 feet. 

Base — Square, of 500 feet side. 

Weight — 12,195 Tons of Metal. 

Material— Steel. 
Cost —^"400,000. 

CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

This Tower is divided into 4 platforms. The Lifts 
are driven by Electricity, and provision is made for Electric 
Lighting. 



76 



DESIGN No. 34. 



W. P. GIBSON. 15, Queen Street, London, E.C. 



77 
DESIGN No. 34 . 

W. P. GIBSON, 

15, Queen Street, London, E.C. 

PARTICULARS . 

Height— 1,232 feet. 

Base — Square. 

Weight — Steel portion of Tower, 7,000 tons. 
Foundation — 25,000 tons. 

Material— Steel. 
Cost— ^199,500. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

The general outline of Tower is taken from one of the 
finest works of Sir Christopher Wren, viz., the spire of Bow 
Church, Cheapside. The small amount of steel necessary 
allows of a low first cost, and the ample accommodation for 
visitors provides a large money-making capacity. This 
Tower contains a Theatre, Illuminated Garden, large 
Restaurants. There are 6 floors, and at the top a lantern 
having a powerful Electric Light. On the sixth floor are 
Bedrooms, Laboratories, Dining Room, Drawing 
Room, &c. In each leg ol the square poition of the Tower is 
a large Hydraulic Lift. Stairc .ses are also provided. 



78 



DESIGN No. 35. 




"UPAS TREE OF JAVA." 



"PETERNEVOURO," 

c/o Nicholas C. Vouro, Constantinople. 



79 



DESIGN No. 35.—" Upas Tree of Java. 1 



PETERNEVOURO, 



c/o Nicholas C. Vouro, Constantinople. 



Height— 1,070 feet. 



8o 



DESIGN No. 36. 




Sir BRADFORD LESLIE, 
Fakkangowkr, Willespen Lane, London, N.\Y 



8i 
DESIGN No. 36 . 

Sir BRADFORD LESLIE, 

Tarrangower, Willesden Lane, 
London, N.W. 

PARTICULARS . 

Height— 1,200 feet. 

Base — Square. 

Weight of structure above foundations, 30,000 tons. 

Material — Cast and Wrought Iron. 

Cost — ^"372,266, including Foundations. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

The main uprights of this Tower consist of four piers 
of cast iron columns, each 50 feet square, with a clear 
space at the bottom of 187 feet between them, and connected 
by intermediate platforms at intervals of 300 feet vertically. 
There are 4 main stages, having 152,340 square feet area, 
and there are 44 intermediate landings, giving a net area of 
255,000 square feet. In each pier there is a Stairway 5 feet 
wide from base to summit. Two pairs of vertical balanced 
Hydraulic Lifts work through the two lower storeys, com- 
municating between the ground and second floor. Two pairs 
of similar lifts work through the two upper storeys. 

F 



82 



DESIGN No. 37. 



The First Prize of 

500 Guineas 

was awarded to this 

design- 




JO U S T R I E 



A. D. STEWART, M.Inst.C.E., 

2, Queen Square Place, W. ; 

J. M. MACLAREX and \Y. DUNN, A.R.I.B.A., 
21, King William Street, Strand, W'.C. 



§3 
DESIGN No. 37. 

A. D. STEWART, M.Inst.C.E., 
2, Queen Square Place, W . ; 

J. M. MACLAREN, A.R.I.B.A., and 

W. DUNN, A.RI.B.A., 

21, King William St., Strand, W.C. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— i, 200 feet. 

Ba.se — Octagonal, 300 feet diameter. 

Weight— 14.659 tons. 
Material— Steel. 

Cost-^35 2 > 222 - 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

The plan being octagonal, the greatest stability 
with economy is obtained. An octagon affords a nearly equal 
resistance to bending in all directions. This plan admits of 
equally favourable views from all sides, and gives a 
sufficient variety of light and shade on its faces. The style 
adopted is of Oriental character. Four Lifts are provided 
up to the first stage, and 2 staircases situated in the legs of 
the Tower. The principal stage is 200 feet above the 
ground, and contains a large Central Hall, of octagonal 
form, 20,000 square feet area, and 60 feet high. Around 
the platform is a balcony. An Hotel with 90 bedrooms is 
provided. The walling is formed of 3 thicknesses of plaster 
on wire netting fixed to iron studding forming 2 distinct air 
spaces. The Floors to be of concrete and steel. A 
Covered Hall 10,000 square feet area is on the second 
stage ; 3 lifts are provided from the first stage upwards, 
with other accommodation, such as Restaurants, &c, &c. 
It is intended to be lighted by Electricity. 



DESIGN No. 38. 







mm 

/A/Oi/S T/r/£S 



Thames Ironworks 
Orchard 



F. HILLS, 

and Shipbuilding Co., Ld., 

Yard, ^Blackwall. 



85 
DESIGN No. 38. 

A. F. HILLS, 

Thames Iron Works and Shipbuilding 

Co., Ltd., 

Orchard Yard, Blackwall. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 2,007 feet- 
Base — 644 feet square. 
Weight — 32,000 tons. 
Material — Steel throughout. 

Cost— ^"525,000, including foundations. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

The type selected is the Monoliths of Ancient Egypt. 
This Tower is constructed out of small parts symmetrically 
arranged, which is a less costly and more convenient method 
than adopting gigantic parts. The intention of this design is 
to provide for an aerial colony, and on the First stage has a 
garden, in which might beheld Flower and Fruit Shows, 
Concerts, with Restaurants and a Balcony. The Second 
Stage, 660 feet from the ground, contains a Theatre. On 
the Third Stage is a Museum, Library, and Picture 
Galleries. On the Fourth Floor is a Temple. Then come 
the Asian, European, African and American Courts, 
and International Stores. After this comes the Resi- 
dential part of the Tower, viz: The Hotel, and a Club, 
also Mansions, Flats, and Chambers, the smokeless, 
fogless atmosphere of which should command a rent 
proportionate to their Alpine altitude. At the summit of the 
Tower is an Observatory 1,960 feet from the ground, 
which is a reproduction of the Great Pyramid, reduced one- 
twelfth scale. The Lifts are worked by electricity. The 
heating of the different rooms is effected by Electricity. 
Stairways are provided. 



86 



DESIGN No. 39. 




JOHN HEATH, 16, Furnival's Inn, London, E.C, 



87 
DESIGN No. 39. 

JOHN HEATH, 
16, Furnival's Inn, London, E.C. 

PARTICULARS. 
Height— 1,300 feet. 

Ba.se — Cruciform. Extreme dimensions of foundation, 
500 feet. 

Materials — Steel, cast iron, Portland stone, glass, lead, 

and zinc. 

Cost — ^500,000. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

The Ground Floor contains a Large Hall, 100 
feet high, having 6 tiers of Galleries, around which is an 
inclined Promenade 30 feet wide, with a gradient of 1 in 
15, opening on to a Promenade of two acres, 100 feet high. 
This Hall provides seats for 4,000 people, and standing or 
promenade space of 4 000 square yards. Ten perpendicular 
Lifts are provided, and two Special Lifts, each to convey 
a carriage and pair of horses to the Promenade 100 feet high. 



88 



DESIGN No. 40. 




UVDUS T/f/ES . 



"ARDUA TENDO." 

LLEWELYN CAMPBELL, 
26, Budge Row, Cannon Street, London. 



8g 

DESIGN No. 40. ("Ardua Texdo."j 

LLEWELYN CAMPBELL, 

26, Budge Row, Cannon Street, 
London. 



PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,670 feet. 

Ba.se — Area 275,625 square feet. 

Material— Steel. 

Cost — ,£"1,300,000 would be the complete outlay, excepting 

the Site. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

This Tower is eminently adapted for the purposes of 
Education, Amusement, and Refreshment. It has an 
absolutely free and unencumbered area (except where lifts and 
stairs occur) of the whole of each floor, which enables the 
space to be adapted for a Theatre, Concert Hall and Ex- 
hibitions, with a Circus on the Ground Floor. 



go 



DESIGN No. 41. 




J. TERTIUS WOOD, F.G.S., Rochdale. 



9i 
DESIGN No. 41. 



J. TERTIUS WOOD, F.G.S., 

Rochdale. 



PARTICULARS . 
Height— 1,225 feet. 

Base— Circular, 450 feet diameter. 
Weight — About 12,000 tons. 
Material — Bessemer Steel. 
Cost ^313,7^9 ios., including foundation. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

The Lifts are placed in a centrally situated column. 
By adopting such a plan, the moments of force and load are 
central balanced, simple, and cannot, even theoretically, dis- 
turb the equilibrium of the Tower. This design offers little 
space upon which the wind can act without breaking its own 
force. The Tower consists of a series of Domes. The 
bottom one may be glazed to form a " Wmter Garden." 
There is a Spiral up to the full height up which visitors may 
pass. It is proposed to train mules to carry people up the 
spiral incline. Provision is made for Lighting this Tower 
by Electricity. 



9 2 



DESIGN No. 42. 




WZUSTRILS 



UTILITY." 



PHILIP E. MASEY, Hope Villa, Harold Street, 
Loughborough Road, London. 



93 
DESIGN No. 42. ("Utility.") 

PHILIP E. MASEY, 

Hope Villa, Harold Street, 

Loughborough Road, London. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,400 feet. 
Base —325 feet square. 
Materials — Cast Iron and Glass. 
Cost — ^"130,000. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

The elements of the design are those common in 
Rome, invented some 2,000 years ago. The Tower could be 
built in 9 months. Being of Cast Iron, it is cheaper than 
Steel, and better suited to glazing. There are 24 floors, 
which would be constructed of Wrought Iron and Portland 
Cement. The Foundation would be a bed of Concrete, 10 
feet thick. The least diameter of the Main Shaft is 75 feet. 
It is proposed to hold Exhibitions on this Tower, to have 
Bachelors' Chambers, Restaurants, Shops, Flower 
Beds and Fountains. There would be 3 double Elevators. 
It is suggested that there should be 400 Rooms at a rental of 
£25 per annum, which would produce £10,000 a year. 



94 



DESIGN No. 43. 




ItllBL/S Tff/ES 



"NELOAH." 
224, Stockwell Road, London, S.W. 



95 



DESIGN No. 43. 



"NELOAH," 



224, Stockwell Road, London, S.W. 

Height— i, 200 feet. 
To be built in Concrete. 



9 6 



DESIGN No. 44. 




INDUSTRIES 



"AD CCELUM JUSSERIS IBIT. 



C. E. FINDLAY, M.I.C.E., W. S. RENDEL, M.I.C.E., 

and HALSEY RICARDO, 

8, Great George Street, Westminster, S.W. 



97 
DESIGN No. 44. ("Ad Ccelum Jussrris Ibit.") 

C. E. FINDLAY, M.I.C.E., 
W. S. RENDEL, M.I.C.E., 
HALSEY RICARDO, 

8, Great George St., Westminster, S.W. 

PARTICULARS . 

Height — 1,200 feet. 

Weight — 3.256 Tons in Mast, Ropes, and Cast Iron pieces. 

Material— Steel. 

Cost — ^155,080, including Foundations. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

This Tower consists of a Central Mast, stayed 
against flexure by Wire Ropes. Balconies, providing space 
for Promenades, Restaurants and Stalls are constructed 
at the heights 400 feet and 600 feet from the ground. These 
balconies are reached by Staircases fixed outside the Mast, 
in addition to which are 4 Hydraulic Lifts working within 
the Mast. The reduction of material in this Tower reduces 
the cost of maintenance, reduces the cost and extent of 
foundations. Should it be desired to remove this Tower, it 
could be done with the greatest facility in the course of six 
weeks. It is proposed to illuminate the Mast by Electric 
Light. 



9 8 



DESIGN No. 45 




dOUS TRIES 



THEODORE SINGTON (Architect), 
17, Dickenson Street, Manchester. 



99 
DESIGN No. 45. 

THEODORE SINGTON, (Architect), 
17, Dickenson Street, Manchester. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height — 1,200 feet. 

Base — 215 feet square at base, and 50 feet square at top 
platform. 

Weight -9,250 Tons of Steel. 

Material— Steel. 
Cost— £3 30,000. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

This design has been developed from an idea taken 
from the Tower of ATESH-GAH at FIRUZABAD. In 
addition to Inclined Balconies, it is proposed to provide 
Lifts. This Tower would be Lighted by the Electric 
Light. 



IOO 



DESIGN No. 46. 




ROBERT WYLIE, 6, Lord Street, Liverpool 



DESIGN No. 46. 

ROBERT WYLIE, 
6, Lord Street, Liverpool . 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,470 feet. 

Base — Stone, faced with Granite. Area enclosed, 40,000 
square yards. 

Weight — Of Steel, 10,260 tons. 

Material— Chiefly Steel. 

Cost— ^"330,000. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

The Stone Base includes Racquet and Tennis 
Courts. Refreshment, Waiting Rooms, &c. First 
Floor is 344 feet above the Ground, and is the Main Pro. 
menade. On this stage is the principal Pavilion, comprising 
two floors, the upper floor being intended as a Concert 
Room. On the 3rd floor is the Upper Pavilion, with an 
external prospect gallery. This Pavilion also has two floors, 
the lower one being divided into Dining and Refreshment 
Rooms, the upper one being specially adapted for a Floral 
Hall and Exhibitions. The 5th floor is enclosed, and 
placed at 1,010 feet above the ground, and the 6th floor is 
1,348 feet above the ground, and is surrounded by a galler)-. 
The Cupola then commences, which contains the top floor, 
at 1,400 feet above the ground. 4 Large Hydraulic Lifts 
are employed, and, in addition, 4 Stairways are provided to 
the level of the Floral Hall, above which 2 Stairways reach 
to the top floor. The Lighting is by Electricity. 



102 



DESIGN No. 47. 




INDUSTRIES 



ACME.' 



WALFORD and WORMALD, 
110, Buckingham Palace Road, London. 






103 
DESIGN No. 47. ("Acme.") 

WALFORD & WORMALD, 
110, Buckingham Palace Rd., London. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,300 feet. 

Ba.se — Square ; 33,000 square feet. 

Weight— Of Steel, 7,890 Tons. 

Materials — Steel, and Cast Iron Base Plates. 

Cost— ^279,121. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

This Tower consists of four principal Shafts, one 
at each angle of the square, and contains Basement, Ground, 
and 5 Supplementary Floors, the uppermost being 1,000 
feet above the ground level. The Basement is utilized for 
boilers, &c. The Ground Floor, containing 33,000 super- 
ficial feet, is laid out as a Winter Garden ; other uses 
are made of this floor. The next floor, viz., that at the 
200 feet stage contains 9,000 square feet, and may be 
appropriated in the following manner: A Grand Buffet and 
Orchestra around the Central Staircases. Coffee and 
Dining Saloon of 1,200 superficial feet. Smoking and 
Billiard Room, 1,200 superficial feet. Two open bays 
on to Galleries off the Central Promenade, each containing 
500 superficial feet. Photographic Gallery, Writing 
Room, Post and Telegraph Office, &c, lVc The Grand 
Stage at 1,000 feet high contains 10,300 superficial feet, 
and the Lifts terminate at this height ; above this is an 
Outside Gallery, and beyond again is the Electric Globe. 
The Staircases will be independent for ascent and descent. 



104 



DESIGN No. 48. 




INDUSTRIES 



EWEN HARPER and J. A. H. HARPER, and JOHN 
GRAHAM, 57, Colmore Row, Birmingham. 



io5 
DESIGN No. 48. 



EWEN HARPER, J. A. H. HARPER , 

and JOHN GRAHAM, C.E., 

57, Colmore Row, Birmingham. 



PARTICULARS. 
Height— 1,300 feet. 

Ba.se — Six-pointed Star. Minimum Width, 400 feet. 
Weight — 9,264 Tons, exclusive of Foundations. 

Material— Steel. 
Cost— ^247,450. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

The Lifts work directly up the centre of Tower. A 
copy of the French Tower has been avoided. Strength and 
Economy are combined so as to be attractive archi- 
tecturally, as well as being a work of practical Engineering 
There are 4 Stages or Platforms, as follows: — No. 1, 300 
feet high, 35,000 square feet ; No. 2, 500 feet high, 16,750 
square feet ; No. 3, 800 feet high, 4,250 square feet ; No. 4, 
1,200 feet high, 3,780 square feet. The floors are composed 
of fin. steel arched plates, with a layer of concrete 3in. 
thick ; weight 281bs. per square foot, over the whole area of 
floor. It is proposed to use Lifts to be worked by Hydraulic 
Power. Electric Light is provided. 



io6 
DESIGN No. 49. 




WYNDHAM VAUGHAN, C.E., 
WILLIAM H. TOMKINS, A.M.I.C.E., 
64, Broad Street Avenue, London, E.C. 






107 
DESIGN No. 49. 



WYNDHAM VAUGHAN, C.E., 
WILLIAM H. TOMKINS, A.M.I.C.E. , 
64, Broad Street Avenue, London, E.C. 



PARTICULARS. 

Height — 1,500 feet. 

Ba.se — Octagonal; the largest diameter being 500 feet the 
top of Tower being go feet diameter. 

Weight — Total weight of metal, 16,747 tons. 

Material— Steel. 

Cost — Not given. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

The skeleton is Octagonal, consisting of 8 triangular 
columns, each consisting of 3 tubes, with lattice bracing. 
There are 3 floors, the main floor being 216 feet above 
ground, with an area of 90,746 square feet. The Second, 
432 feet above the giound, of 31.400 square feet. The 
Third, at a height of 1,360 feet above ground, having an 
area of 11,309 square feet. There is also a floor in the 
campanile, with a small balcony round the lantern. Stairs 
and Steam Lifts are provided. 



io8 



DESIGN No. 50. 




M0t/s r/r/s* 



MAX am ENDE, 5, Victoria Street, S.W. 



iog 
DESIGN No. 50. 

MAX AM ENDE, 

5, Victoria Street, S.W . 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,550 feet. 

Ba.se — Square. 

Weight — Dead weight of Tower at base of steel structure, 
16,053 tons > total amount of steel, 10,849 tons 5 total 
amount of steel in platforms, 2,617 tons. 

Material— Steel. 

Cost — ^674,592, including foundations. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED. 

This Tower is of Gothic design, with 5 platforms — 
1,320 feet, 1,200 feet, 1,000 feet, 780 feet, and 400 feet 
above the ground level. This Tower would be a monument 
of the progress in iron and steel manufacture and engineering 
industry. It is proposed that the thickness of steel in all 
supporting parts should not be less than f inch. No cast iron 
or steel castings will be used in this Tower. The 1,000 feet 
platform is the most spacious and has an open balcony. Foot- 
paths, 1 in 9, as well as lifts are provided. The Lifts resemble 
ordinary means of locomotion, and consist of a Spiral Rail- 
way, worked by steam. The diameter of the spiral is 
21 feet 10^ inches, and the pitch is 12 feet 6 inches, the 
gradient is therefore 1 in 5|. There are not less than 8 
Railway Carriages, or more than 40. A 1st class carriage 
contains 10 seats, 2nd class 11, 3rd class 12. Electric 
Lighting is provided. 



no 



DESIGN No. 51. 



The Second Prize of 

250 Guineas 

was awarded to this 

Design. 




JOHN J. WEBSTER M.I.C.E., and T. W. HAIGH, 
67, Lord Street, Liverpool. 



DESIGN No. 51. 



JOHN J. WEBSTER, M.Inst.C.E . 
T. W. HAIGH , 

67, Lord Street, Liverpool. 



PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,300 feet. 

Ba.se — Octagonal ; diameter, 470 feet. 

Weight— of metal 8,820 tons. 

Material— Steel. 

Cost ~Z"399, °3^, exclusive of foundations. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

The form is Octagonal and being a near approach to 
a circle the resistance of the wind is reduced to a minimum. 
The stability of structure is uniform for any direction of wind. 
It occupies a minimum space on the ground, and is economical 
in construction. Height of 1st platform from ground, 200 feet ; 
2nd, 500 feet ; 3rd, 750 feet ; 4th, 1,215 feet ; Lantern 
Gallery, 1,250 ; Crow's Nest, 1,300. The building is 
adapted for Hotels, Restaurants, Residential flats, 
Offices, Warehouses, Stores, &c, Concerts, and other 
entertainments. 3,000 people can be comfortably seated on 
1st platform, leaving a broad promenade round the seats. In 
addition to lifts, access to every platform and every floor in the 
base buildings can be made by a convenient staircase and 
stairway provided up to the 4th floor. As an alternative, a 
spiral footway is proposed. The bottom lengths of the 
vertical columns are filled with ballast to obtain the necessary 
stability in the most economical manner. Holding down 
bolts are also adopted. The lighting is by Electricity. 
The rents would ensure a handsome dividend on an 
expenditure of £450,000. 



112 



DESIGN No. 52. 



gll, . ■ JTtUl' I' 



W. S. RENDEL, M.I.C.E., C. F. FINDLAY, M.I.C.E., 

and HALSEY RICARDO, 

8, Great Gkorge Street, Westminster, S.W. 



"3 
DESIGN No. 52. 



W. S. RENDLE, M.Inst.C.E., 

C. F. FINDLAY, M.Inst. C.E., 

HALSEY RICARDO, 

8, Great George Street, Westminster, 
London, S.W. 



PARTICULARS. 



Height — 1,260 feet. 

Base — Octagonal, occupying 46,000 square feet. 
Weight— Steel, 9,628 tons ; Iron, 850 tons. 

Material— Steel. 
Cost— ^388,500. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

The base of this Tower is used as a Winter Garden 
with a dome roof, and a floor area of 46,000 square feet, 
and a Promenade round the Dome at a height of 25 feet 
from the ground, under which is a Promenade with Shops, 
Restaurants, ^c. The Lifts convey passengers to the first 
floor, which is 304 feet from the ground, and contains a floor 
area of 16,240 square feet. The remaining height is divided 
into two stages by a gallery, 712 feet from the ground, con- 
taining 5,300 square feet ; both it and the lantern at the top 
are reached by hydraulic lifts inside the hollow octagon 
forming the Tower. In addition to the lifts access would be 
gained to the various stages by an inclined plane, which 
descends from the summit spirally on the outside of the 
Tower, about a mile and a half in length, with a gradient 
of 1 in 8. The lighting is by Electricity. 

H 



II 4 



DESIGN No. 53. 




1NDUSTR/ES 



FRANCIS FOX, M.Inst.C.E., and GEORGE E. 
GRAYSON, 31, James Street, Liverpool. 



«5 

DESIGN No. 53. 

FRANCIS FOX, M.Inst.C.E., 

GEORGE E. GRAYSON, 

31, James Street, Liverpool. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,300 feet. 

Ba.se — Double octagonal, 370 feet diameter. 

Weight — 10,200 tons. 

Material —Steel. 

Cost — About ^"300,000, exclusive of the Concert Hall and 

fitting up of Restaurants. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

The main skeleton consists of 16 lattice columns, 
each 20 feet square. The top platform is 50 feet diameter 
at an altitude of 1,200 feet. There are 6 galleries. An 
inclined spiral roadway is provided from the ground level 
to the first gallery. Lifts are proposed. The design 
combines stability with economy. The curve of the 
Tower from the ground upwards is parabolic, being the 
best to resist the wind pressure. The design offers the 
smallest possible resistance to the wind, so that the resultant 
force due to the weight of structure falls within the base. 
This Tower contains a Concert Hall, and Sanatorium 
formed by a number of rooms above the fifth platform, and 
is lighted by Electricity. 



n6 



DESIGN No. 54. 




IHLiUSTfil£S 



J. SINCLAIR FAIRFAX (Engineer and Architect), 
433, Strand, London. 



ii7 
DESIGN No. 54. 

J. SINCLAIR FAIRFAX, 

Engineer and Architect, 433, Strand, 
London. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,296 feet. 

B&se — 576 feet wide. 

Weight — Of steel work, 34,200 tons. 

Material— Steel. 

Cost— ^567,880, exclusive of cost of superintendence, &c, 
estimated at 5 per cent. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

There is a clear open space -within this Tower of 
96 feet square, which extends from the ground to a height of 
840 feet above, where it is contracted to 16 feet square. 
Consequently it is possible to swing a pendulum freely from 
a fixed point 1,296 feet above the earth. There are 10 floors 
above ground. Steam Lifts and Stairways are provided. 
This Tower has been designed to accommodate a large number 
or people at the high levels of 840 and 960 feet above 
ground. The lighting is by Electricity. 



n8 



DESIGN No. 55. 




HENRY DAVEY 3, Princess Street, Westminster, 



ng 

DESIGN No. 55 . 

HENRY DAVEY, 

3, Princess Street, Westminster. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height — 1,250 feet. 

Ba.se — Hexagonal. 

Weight — 8,000 Tons of Steel. 

Material— Steel. 

Cost— £321,000. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED 



The Skeleton consists of 12 main tubes braced 
together, each corded at base with 4,000 tons of Masonry. 
The base is utilised as a Winter Garden. Staircases and 
Hydraulic Lifts are provided. The structure takes the form 
of a Spire above the 1st Stage, which is at a height of 380 
feet from the ground. The ground floor or Winter Garden 
contains 70,000 square feet area. The Lighting is by 
Electricity. There are 2 stages, one 380 feet from the 
ground, the other 980 feet. At the first stage there are 3 
floors, giving a total area 58,000 square feet. At the second 
stage there are 4 floors, giving a total of 14,000 square feet. 
The Ball is reached by a Staircase, and is 1,250 feet above 
the ground. 



120 



DESIGN No. 56. 







W. HEMINGWAY, 9, Cawood Terrace, Dawes Road, 
Walham Green, London. 



121 



DESIGN No. 56. 



W. HEMINGWAY, 

9, Cawood Terr., Dawes Road, Walham 
Green, London. 



PARTICULARS. 

Height — 1,200 feet. 
Ba.se — Hexagonal, and Triangular above the Dome. 

Weight — 29,891 Tons of Metal (Steel, Cast and Wrought 

Iron). 

Material— Steel. 
Cost— £400,554. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

Simplicity of Construction and Facility of 
Erection. The triangular form of Spire offers the minimum 
amount of resistance to the wind pressure. It is proposed to 
use the Main Hall for Concerts, Banquets, &c. 



122 



DESIGN No. 57. 




R. J. G. READ, and L. A. SHUFFREY 
38, Welbeck Street, London, W! 



123 

DESIGN No. 57. 

R. J. G. READ, L. A. SHUFFREY, 

38, Welbeck Street, London, W. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,250 feet. 
Ba.se — Square, with Octagonal Spire above. 
Weight— Weight of Metal, 7,600 Tons. 
Material— Steel. 

Cost — ^"390,673, including Foundations. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED 



This Tower rests upon 16 pillars, forming the legs, 
which rest on granite blocks. The main stages are two 
platforms at a height of 200ft. and 800ft. respectively, above 
the ground. On the lower stage would be large Pavilions, 
to be used as Restaurants. Cafes, Concert Hall, Dancing 
Saloon, beside Kiosks and Stalls, &c, are provided. The 
second floor is furnished with buildings for similar purposes. 
Above the 2nd stage is a Promenade Gallery. There is a 
4th Platform at the top of the Spire. Hydraulic Lifts are 
provided. The Tower is lighted by Electricity. 



124 

DESIGN No. 58. 




"EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE." 

HENRY LAW & SON, i», Victoria Chambers, 

Victoria Street, London. 



I2 5 
DESIGN No. 58. — "Equilateral Triangle." 

HENRY LAW & SON, 

9, Victoria Chambers, Victoria Street, 
London. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,475 feet. 
Base — Hexagonal, covering an area of 225,880 square feet. 

Weight— 14,210 tons of Steel. 

2,150 tons of Wrought Iron. 
58 tons of Cast Iron. 

Material— Chiefly Steel. 

Cost— ^726,752. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

The leading feature of this design is a central 
hexagonal Tower, sustained by 6 curved spurs. The 
maximum compressive stress upon the piers, including that 
produced by the wind and 40,000 persons distributed over 
the structure is If tons to the square foot. The Ground 
floor contains Entrance Hall, Restaurant and Concert 
Hall, area of 6,885 square feet, Terrace 68,500 square feet. 
First stage, 86,780 square feet. Second stage, 41,800 
square feet. Third stage, 11,500. square feet. Fourth 
stage, 8,240 square feet. Lifts and Stairways are pro- 
vided. The lifts, which are Hydraulic, are contained in the 
central Tower, which is divided into 6 tuangular spaces to 
accommodate them. The speed is 360 feet per minute. 



126 



DESIGN No. 59. 







"TRIPOD TOWER." 

Prof. ROBERT H. SMITH, A.M. Inst. C.E., 

124, Haglev Road, Birmingham ; and 

W. HENMAN, A.R.I.B.A., 38, Bennett's Hill, 

Birmingham. 



127 
DESIGN No. 59.— " Tripod Tower.' 

Prof. ROBERT H, SMITH, 
A.M.Inst.C.E. 

W. HENMAN, A.R.I.B.A. 
PARTICULARS . 

Height— 1,400 feet. 

Ba.se — Triangular. 

Weight — Steel, Wrought Iron and Cast Iron, 
11,502 tons. 

Material— Chiefly Steel. 

Cost — ,£"229,500, including foundations. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

This Tower consists in 3 tapered Steel Tubes 
which at each horizontal section have their centres at the 
corners of an equilateral triangle. At the ground level the 
tubes are 30 feet diameter, and their centres are 350 feet 
apart. At a height of 156 feet from the ground is a gallery 
12 feet wide and 500 feet long, next comes a great platform 
with 3 main floors and one mezzanine floor, having an 
aggregate area of 54,345 square feet, the lowest floor being 
282 feet from the ground, above this is an intermediate 
two-storied platform with mezzanine floor, having a 
total area of 12,582 square feet, the lower floor being 585 
feet above the ground. There is also a top platform of two 
stories and mezzanine, whose lowest floor level is 1,250 
feet, with an area of 4,075 square feet. The structure 
terminates in a crown of bold design. Lifts and stairways 
are provided. 



128 



DESIGN No. 60. 




H. E. SKETCHLEY, M.Inst.C.E., 5, Gwendwr Road, 

YYf.st Kensington. 



129 
DESIGN No. 60. 

H. E. SKETCHLEY, M.Inst.C.E., 
5, Gwendwr Road, West Kensington . 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,264 feet- 
Base — -Square. 
Weight— 12,000 tons of Steel. 
Materia!— Chiefly Steel. 

Cost — Labour in construction, ^"193,263. 
Labour and materials ^496,154. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

This Tower consists of two portions, the upper 
one being an independent Tower resting upon 4 separate 
lower Towers. There are 3 platforms. The main 
columns of the upper portion are 16 in number in 4 sets of 
4 each, and ate octagonal in section. The 1st platform is 
264 feet from the ground, and is 275 feet square, with an 
area of 8,400 square yards. The 2nd platform is at a height 
of 528 feet from the ground, and is 209 feet square, having 
an area of 3,650 square yards. The 3rd platform is 1,048 
feet from the ground and is octagonal in shape, measuring 86 
feet across, with an area of 680 square yards. Above this is 
an upper floor, also octagonal, containing 330 square yards, 
surrounded by a gallery which can be used for scientific 
purposes. Lifts and Staircases are provided, and the 
Tower is lighted with Electricity. 



130 



DESIGN No. 6J. 




/ 1 11 gfedkaffihsasB 




TRIPOD." 



THOMAS W. PLANT and JAMES S. FLEMING, 
85, Gracechurch Street, London, E.C. 



i3i 



DESIGN No. 61. "Tripod." 



THOMAS W. PLANT, 

JAMES S. FLEMING, 

85, Gracechurch Street, London, E.C. 



PARTICULARS. 

Height — i, 200 feet. 

Ba.se — Triangular. 

Weight — Of metal, 6,278 tons. 

Material— Steel. 

Cost — £234,050, exclusive of foundations. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED 

The base is of the " Tripod " form, selected for 
its great resistance to wind pressure. It measures 320 
feet between the feet at base. Lifts and Staircases are 
provided. Lighting by Electricity is proposed. 



132 



DESIGN No. 62. 




~.. "FTECTI NON FRANG1." 
.■EXCELSIOR," "FLECix 
\v.TT 132 Wellington Street, Glasgow, 
j. MILNE WATT, 1*M. 



133 
DESIGN No. 6 2. ''Excelsior." " Flf.cti nmn Fkaxgi. 

J. MILNE WATT, 
132, Wellington Street, Glasgow. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height- 1 ^oo feet. 

Base— Octagonal. 

Weight— N"t given. 

Material— Steel— preferably of nickel steel. 

COSt — Not given. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

The Main Tower consists of 3 pillars, one at 
each corner of the octagon, and 8 intermediate piers, 
all resting on the ground and bolted firmly to the foundation. 
There are several stages in this Tower. Electric Light 
is provided. 



J 34 



DESIGN No. 63. 




GEORGE W. HALPIN, 
22, Belsize Square, London, N.W. 



^5 
DESIGN No. 63 . 

GEORGE W. HALPIN. 
22, Belsize Square, London, N.W . 

PARTICULARS . 
Height— 1,250 feet. 

Ba.se — Square. 
Weight — Steel, 6,000 tons. 

Material — Steel. 

Cost — ^fi 14,450, including foundations. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

This Tower contains 2 floors at base of lantern, the 
lower of which is at an altitude of 1,200 feet, the upper floor 
being reserved for scientific purposes. At the base of the 
circular part there is a platform 900 feet from the ground, 
and platforms also would be fixed at heights of 630, 550, 
310, and 165 feet. Lifts and stairways are provided. 



i 3 6 



DESIGN No. 64. 




/..^i/sr/?/rs 



LAMONT YOUNG, Villa Lucia, Naples. 



J 37 
DESIGN No. 64. 

LAMONT YOUNG, 
Villa Lucia, Naples. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,450 feet. 

Ba.se — Square. 

Weight — 23,000 tons, exclusive of lifts, flooring, internal 
division, and other accessories. 

Material — Iron. 

Cost — Not given. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED : 

The design is composed of a group of 5 Towers, 
a main central one supporting a large terrestrial Globe 
and four secondary ones, symmetrically situated wilh 
regard to it. The great spaces, both inside and outside 
the Globe, will form the principal attractions to the Tower. 
The largest platforms will be at the highest levels. The 
central Tower will be square. Lifts and staircases are 
provided. The interior of the sphere will be divided into 
several floors for Shops, Stores, Restaurants, Music 
Halls, Lecture Rooms, Theatres, Exhibitions, and other 
places of amusement and instruction. The lighting 
would be by Electricity. 



i3 



DESIGN No. 65. 




///pvsr/r/rs 



EDWIN ROUNDTOUR, 18, Colquhoun Square, 
Helensburgh, N.B. 



139 
DESIGN No. 65. (" E. Roundtour. ") 

EDWIN ROUNDTOUR, 
18, Colquhoun Sq., Helensburgh, N.B. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height — 1,236 feet to highest stage. 
Base— Hexagonal Base and Circular above. 
Weight— 13 935 t^s- 
Material — Steel. 
Cost — Not stated. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

The Tower forms one compact whole with its 
oundations. The circular form has been adopted on 
account of the small amount of resistance offered to wind 
pressure. " This Tower may be considered as a great tree, 
hollow centrally, with roots well fixed down to iron beams 
in solid concrete." It is enclosed all round, so as to pro- 
tect visitors from inclement weather. There are 4 main 
stages, 300, 600, 900, and 1,200 feet high. On the roof of 
each stage is an open Promenade, the highest Promenade 
being 1,236 feet above the ground, with stairs up to it. 
Lifts are also provided. The lower part of the Tower 
is bell-shaped. 



140 



DESIGN No. 66. 




" I SEE ALL." 
W. FAWCETT, 48, Lowther Street, Crown Street, 

Liverpool. 



I 4 I 



DESIGN No. 00. (" I See All.") 

W. FAWCETT, 

48, Lowther St., Crown St., Liverpool. 

PARTICULARS. 

Height— 1,500 feet. 
Ba.se — Square. 
Weight— Not stated. 
Materials -Steel and Iron. 

Cost — Not stated. 



142 
DESIGN No. 67. 




■'EXCELSIOR." 

JAMES MAXWELL 4, Upper Coltbridge Terrace, 

Edinburgh. 



H3 



DESIGN No. 67.— "Excelsior." 



JAMES MAXWELL, 



4, Upper Coltbridge Terrace, Edinburgh. 



PARTICULARS. 



Height — 1,333 ^et. 

Ba.se — Hexagonal. 

Weight— Not stated. 

Materials — Steel and Iron. 
Cost— ^370, oco. 



144 



DESIGN No. 68. 




BRITISH LION. 



W. H. BREITHAUPT, M.Inst.C.E., 

309 and 310, Baird Building, Wyandotte and Sixth 

Streets, Kansas City, U.S.A. 



H5 
DESIGN Xo. 68.— "British Lion." 

W. H. BREITHAUPT, M.I.C.E., 
309 and 310, Baird Building, 
Wyandotte and Sixth Streets, 
Kansas City, U.S.A. 

PARTICULARS. 



Height— i,2oo feet. 

Base— Octagonal. 
Weight— Steel and Iron, 6,250 tons. 

Material— Steel. 
Cost— ^108,129. 



CHIEF FEATURES CLAIMED: 

On the 1st floor is a Concert Hall capable of 
seating 1,350 people with 900 extra in the Gallery, or a 
total of 2,250 seats with ample Promenade, above which 
is a Restaurant, and on the top of this stage are the 
Kitchens, Store-rooms, &c. The 2nd stage will contain 
Hotel, and Rooms fitted for similar purposes. The 3rd 
will be used for Meteorological observations. All interior 
work will be strictly fireproof. The outside covering 
will be of sheet copper. 



INDEX 



"Acme'' 

" Ad Ccelum Jusseris Ibit " 

" Ajax 4314390 " . 

" Altiora Peto " 

"A. P. B." . 

" Ardua Tendo " 



PAGE 
IO3 

97 
55 
53 
67 
89 



B. 



Bateman, J. T., 11, Beulah Road West, Thornton Heath 73 
" British Lion " . . . . . . 145 

Buckingham, E. De Vere, Winchester . . . 41 

C. 

Campanakis, P., Constantinople . . . -63 

" Century Tower," The . . . . 47 

Chapman, J. C, 52, Elthorne Road, Holloway . . 71 

" Circumferentially, Radially and Diagonally Bound " 19 

Clarke, T. C, m.inst.c.e., Broadway, New York . > 

Professor Joseph Mayer, Union Bridge, Conn., / 

U.S.A., and (49 

W. Hildenbrand . . . . . J 

D. 

Davey, Henry, 3, Princes Street, Westminster . .119 
Dunn,W., a.r.i.b.a., 2T, King William Street, Strand, W.C. 83 



i 4 S 
E. 

PAGE 

"E." 75 

Ende, Max am, 5, Victoria Street, S.W. . . . 109 

" Equilateral Triangle " 125 

" Excelsior " . 

" Flecti non Frangi "... 



133 



"Excelsior" .... . 143 



117 
17 

113 
21 

133 



F. 

Fairfax, Sinclair J., 433, Strand, W.C. . 
Fidler, H., Lyndhurst Grove Park, Chiswick 

FlNDLAY, C. F., M.INST.C.E. 

Fisher, S., 32, Eagle Wharf Road, London, N. 

" Flecti non Frangi " .... 

Fox, Francis, m.inst.c.e., and . . > 

George E. Grayson, 31, James Street, Liverpool 1 $ 

G. 

Gibson, W. P., 15, Queen Street, E.C. . • • 77 
" Gordon " ...... 57 

Graham, John, 57, Colmore Row, Birmingham . . 105 

Grayson, George E. . . . . . 115 

H. 

Haigh, J. W., 67, Lord Street, Liverpool . . .111 

Halpin, George W., 22, Belsize Square, London . . 135 

Harper, Ewen . . . . . j 

H. A. H. Harper, and ... V 105 

John Graham, 57, Colmore Road, Birmingham. j 

Harper, H. A. H. . . . . . 105 

Harrison-Vasey, J. H. M., 24. Vicarage Terrace, 

Sunderland . . . . . . 45 

Heath, John, 16, Furnival's Inn, E.C. . . . 87 

W. Hemingway, Walham Green, London . . .121 



149 

PAGE 

Henman, W., a.r.i.b.a. ... . 127 

HlLDENBRAND, W. . . . . . 49 

Hills, A. F., Thames Iron Works and Shipbuilding 

Co., Ld., Orchard Yard, Blackwall . . 85 

Horton, J., Copley, near Halifax, Yorkshire . . 43 

I. 
" I See All '...... 141 

K. 

Kixkel & Pohl, Washington, U.S.A. . . . 23 



L. 



M. 

Maclaren, J. M. .... 

" Maximus " 

Mayer, Pro. J., Union Bridge, Conn., U.S.A. 

'• multum in parvo " 

" My Tower" ..... 

N. 

"Neloah" .... 

Northumbrian " . 



59 



Lean, C, m.inst.c.e., 72 Palace Chambers, Westminster, 
S.W. . ..... 

Leslie, Sir Bradford, Tarrangower, Willesden Lane, 

N.W. . . . . . . . 81 

"Light, Health, Rest, Pleasure" . . -51 



83 
61 

49 
27 
29 



95 

!5 



O. 

Otis, M. T., Rochester, U.S.A. , , , .11 



15° 
R. 

PAGE 

Read, R. J. G., and . . . . . ) 

L. A. Shuffrey, 38, Welbeck Street, W . j I2 3 

Rendel, W. S., m.inst.c.e. . . . . ] 

C. F. Findlay, m.inst.c.e., and . . V113 

Halsey Ricardo . . . . .J 

Ricardo, Halsey, 8, Gt. George Street, Westminster . 113 

Ross, O. C. D., m.inst.c.e., 15, Relf Road, East Duhvich 69 

" E. Roundtouk " . . . . . . 139 



Shaw, E. S., Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. . . 31 

Shuffrey, L. A., 38, Welbeck Street, W. . . . 123 

Sington, T., 17, Dickinson Street, Manchester . . 99 

Sketchley, H. E., m.inst.c.e., 5, Gwendwr Road, West 

Kensington . . . . . . 129 

Smith, Professor Robert H., a. m.inst.c.e., and 1 

W. Henman, a.r.i.b.a. . . . ) ' 

Stewart, A. D., m.inst.c.e., 2, Queen Square Place, W '. \ 
J. M. Maclaren, and . . . . r 
W. Dunn, a.r.i.b.a., 21, King William Street, Strand, ( 3 
W.C ' 



Thornycroft, J. I., Chiswick . . . -37 

" Time is Money " . . . . . . 65 

Tomkins, W. H., a. m.inst.c.e., 64, Broad Street Avenue, 

E.C. ....... 107 

Trew, T. V., 26, Tarbert Road, East Dulwich Grove . 35 
" Tripod " . . . . . . . 131 

U. 

" Upas Tree of Java " . . . . . 79 

"Utility" , . , • • .93 



1 5 1 
V. 

PAGE 

Vaughan, Wnydham, and . . . .1 

W. H. Tomkins, a.m. inst. c.e., 64, Broad Street > 107 

Avenue, E.C. .... J 

Vernon, D., Topsham . . . . . 13 

W. 

"W 3 " . . . . . . .25 

Webster, John J., m.inst.c.e., and . . ) 

J. W. Haigh, 67, Lord Street, Liverpool . J IJI 

Wood, J. Tertius, f.g.s., Rochdale . . . . gi 

Woodcock, W. H., 6, Victoria Street, S.W. . . 39 

Worral & Co., E., 26, Byrom Street, Liverpool . . 33 

Wylie, Robert, 6, Lord Street, Liverpool . . 101 

Y. 

Young, Lamont, Villa Lucia, Naples . . .137 









1-, 



v^* 



ZJo^ 






mm